wetland bird survey – calling curlews

Yesterday I completed my Wetland Bird Survey count for April. The winter migrants – Lapwings, Golden Plovers and winter ducks – have now returned to their summer territories. As a result the variety of species that I include is much reduced. Mute swans and Mallards are the main species I see, along with a few Grey Herons, Cormorants, Moorhens and the odd Gadwall. 

The real attraction for me is a spring arrival – the Curlew. The first sign I have of their return is that bubbling call emanating from an unseen point in the distance, the flat landscape allowing the sound to travel. I heard and saw several over the course of the morning. It’s a wonderful sight to watch one in display flight, rising out of the rough grass and haze, but I’m conscious that their numbers are far fewer than used to be the case.

The species has experienced a 48% decline across the UK between 1995-2015. Through the work of organisations like the BTO and RSPB, and campaigning from the likes of Mary Colwell, the Curlew has become a touchstone species for the many birds and other wildlife that are under threat. If we support these projects, maybe we will see an increase in Curlew numbers – check out the links below to see how you can help.

BTO Curlew Appeal

Curlew Country

RSPB

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four legs as well as two

With the sunrise that little bit earlier, it was good to be able get started more promptly with my bird count last Sunday. One of the benefits of an early start is fewer people are out and about, which means the birds are less likely to have been disturbed.A few breaks in the cloud allowed the sunlight to show through, and with a thin layer of mist lying across the fields it made for some beautiful scenery.

It has been a dry winter so far, but a spell of rain on the previous day meant that there was splash flooding in some of the fields, more than I have seen this winter. As a consequence there were variously sized flocks of Lapwings in many of these fields. Strangely, when there is splash flooding, one particular field will usually have substantially more water than on other fields, but never any birds. Today was the exception – there was one Lapwing!

In the bushes and trees that line the drove tracks, bird life was very much in evidence. Species such as Great tits, Redwings, Blackbirds and Chaffinches all quite vocal and active. Reed buntings, bolder than other birds, would hop around on the ground just a couple of metres or so away.

Although these trips are primarily for the birds, if I am lucky I will also see some four-legged wildlife. Wherever I walk the mud is always peppered with any number of animal tracks, and I always hope to see one or two of the culprits. Inevitably, any animals that I do see have usually already seen me and I am often only alerted to their presence as they run off – as was the case with a fox and two hares. There is usually a group of 3 or 4 Roe deer to be seen in one area, and this occasion was no different. A particular treat was watching a stoat swim across a ‘wet fence’ and trot off up the track a short way ahead.

When here in large numbers, the Lapwings and Golden Plovers are the main spectacle. Last Sunday the biggest concentration of both species was in just 3 or 4 fields. Numbering several thousand, they really are magnificent to watch, either when on the ground or in flight. I have only been doing this for a little over a year, and I find counting them still a challenge, but hopefully I am getting more accurate with practice. I would love to spend some time here with the camera, but a survey trip is not the occasion – it takes all my concentration just doing the counting! One of these days I will have to make a separate trip and see if I can get some photographs or video of them.

wetland bird survey – swans and sunshine

When I make the half-hour drive to my survey patch, I will often see flocks of Starlings pass over head, all coming from the direction of the Somerset Levels. When there are several hundred they will be strung out in a long line, flying low across the fields, up over the hedges and roads and on to their feeding grounds. Last weekend was no exception, and given it was also a beautiful sunny morning, it felt like a promising day for seeing birds.

A month ago I saw less than a hundred Lapwings for the whole count, but as I arrived it was evident that it would be different on this occasion. As I got my wellies on a flock of about 60 Lapwings flew overhead, their curious calls filling the air. The water in the River Sowy and Langacre Rhyne was high, just about breaking the bank. Here, there were the usual suspects – a handful of Mute Swans and Cormorants. There is scrub and long grass on the banks which play host to Stonechats, and there were several visible, all very noisy.

I covered this first section on foot, and part way along my route a pair of Roe deer watched me from the far side of a field. Evidently my presence proved too much; off they went, their tail flashes showing up bright in the sunshine. Perhaps this was the same pair that I saw here last month? In the bushes beside me a Cetti’s warbler gave song – always startlingly loud. I sometimes wonder if they surprise themselves with the volume of their voice.

On this part of the site I have to cross two bridges. There are often birds here, and with little cover available, caution is required if they are not to be spooked. As I approached, there suddenly seemed to be birds everywhere. A flock of about 160 Lapwings took off from a field adjacent to the river took. Several Mallards passed overhead. I could hear Teal calling – there were 20 or so upstream – and numerous swans populated the river banks further downstream.

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Three swans flew past, following the line of the river. Initially I just noted down the number, but as an after thought I had a quick look through the binoculars. I’m glad I did as the different shape and colouring of their beaks revealed them to be Whooper swans. I have access to the survey records for this site going back to 2000, and looking through later on I could see no previous instance of the species. In addition this was a lifer for me, so on two counts that already made the day a bit special.

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Larger numbers of Lapwings gather in the fields adjacent to one of the roads that cuts across the site. I can scan these from the roadside, but it takes some time to cover as there are anything up to several hundred in each field, and careful counting is required. Here also were Golden Plovers, the other species that gather in large numbers. In one field there were approximately 1500, and along with a flock of Lapwings, they took flight, giving a wonderful swirling display. When they wheel and turn they look like a shoal of fish, the sunlight catching their paler plumage.

As I drove between two viewpoints I noticed a couple of egrets in amongst some cattle. Were these Cattle egrets? After parking, I used my scope to have a better look and sure enough, this was certainly what they were. This was my second lifer of the day, and again, another species that is not in the records I have access to.

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Cattle egrets have been showing up on the Somerset Levels for some years now, with Catcott Lows seeming to be a particular hotspot for them. In 2008 they bred here on the Levels for the first time on record in the UK, after an influx the previous year. It will be interesting to see if they show up again on my patch over the winter.

In the same way that it is somehow reassuring when the Swallows return in spring, it was good to see the Lapwings and Golden Plovers back here in numbers. In all there were 1450 and 3000 respectively- double the numbers present the same time last year. This count was particularly enjoyable – nice weather, new species and the spectacle of large numbers of birds in flight. What’s not to like?

wetland bird survey – October

A year ago I signed up to take part in the Wetland Bird Survey. Over the course of last winter I completed monthly counts of waders and wetland birds at a site on the Somerset Levels.

The survey is undertaken on specified dates, and last weekend I did my October count. I had hoped that the good weather would continue over the weekend, but it was not to be. Wellies and waterproofs were a must!

Scanning the fields at my first viewpoint, it quickly became evident that there were none of the lapwings and golden plovers that will be present in the winter. However, as I made my way around the site several species were present on the various drains, rhynes and ditches.

Mute swans, variously on the water or banks, were gathered in pairs or small groups – 38 in all. Cormorants were scattered in ones and twos, perched on gates and bridge parapets. There is also a tree which they favour. Why this particular one, I don’t know, but often there will be seven or more amongst its branches. On this occasion there were just a pair. Every so often mallards, in twos and threes, would fly over head. From a nearby field, a lone snipe launched itself skyward, zig-zagging as it called.

While walking along a drove track my eye was drawn to birds in flight above me. Strung out in a ragged line were my first flock of lapwings, just 13, followed soon after by a flock of 23. In another part of the site I saw a flock of 42. It is early days yet and numbers will hopefully increase in the winter – last year I was counting them in the low 1000s. The historical records for the site show that less than a decade ago lapwings were being counted at over 10,000.

As I worked my way around the site, other species made a show. A couple of teal here, a coot there. A grey heron, wings arched, flying ponderously. The dashing flight of a kingfisher – always a delight to see.

While scanning a section of a rhyne, I spotted three birds on the water some way off. They dived repeatedly, and at that distance I could just make out one black, two brown. I couldn’t think of what they were immediately, although I had the nagging feeling that I ought to be able to. The colouring was familiar. It would probably come to me later.

I watched as a great white egret stalked along the margins of a drain. Extending its neck, it leaned out and stabbed at the water. With much exaggerated gulping and shaking of the head, it swallowed its prey and resumed its task. Shortly afterwards, I saw the egret fly off, being chased by a grey heron. Earlier on I had seen another in amongst some reeds, and that was also seen off by a grey heron.

The landscape here is not just about waders. I was walking one section and a flash of white up ahead caught my attention. It was a wheatear, hopping along the ground, then up it flew, landing on a nearby post. Two roe deer grazed on vegetation in a nearby field. In the scrub and bushes alongside the tracks there was a constant movement and calling from small birds – goldfinches, robins, tits, and reed buntings.

By the time I had completed the count I had seen 12 species in all. In terms of numbers, it was a slow morning compared to some of last winters’ counts, but a good chance to refresh my ID skills. Also, the discipline and purpose that doing the survey brings to birding is enjoyable. Besides which, the wetlands are a fascinating place to spend time. The landscape of the Somerset Levels has a unique beauty – even when it rains.

And those three diving birds? Tufted ducks.

a following wind

Sunday afternoon, a couple of weeks ago, the storm has blown through, a rearguard of cloud moves away to the east. Overhead, a bright blue sky and rag ends of clouds caught on a stiff northerly breeze.

Looking up on the off chance, a habit.

Half a dozen or so swallows fly over, purposeful, direct, southbound.

It gives me an idea. Equipped with binoculars, a chair, and an hour ahead of me, I install myself at the end of the garden where I have a clear view of the sky. Check the time and wait. It doesn’t take long – another small flock, heading the same way, south, and the same focused flight, intent. Minutes later another group. And another.

I watch for an hour, and over the course of that time I count 142 swallows and 12 house martins. Not a huge number by any means, but a near constant flow. In all, 32 groups pass over, ranging from lone birds to 20 or more, so on average every 2 minutes. Unlike the interweaving flight of resident feeding swallows, they are all flying in one direction. This behaviour suggests that with the wind in the right direction, and more than 9000 kilometres to go, this is an opportunity not to be squandered.

So, do migrating birds wait for a following wind? It makes sense, but this is something I need to look into.

Two days later, late afternoon, I watched a group of six swallows skim over the village. And that was the last time. So long until next year.


Last weekend I talk a walk to the copse around sunrise, and the number of Robins was notable – far more than usual. It seemed almost as if every few metres there would be one singing or scolding. I counted 20 over about a kilometre – normally there would be perhaps 5–10. No doubt these will be part of the influx of migrants that overwinter here, so as one lot of visitors are leaving, another are taking their place.

In the copse itself a noisy flock of about 30 Magpies congregated in the tops of the trees – I don’t recall seeing this many at one time before. In the half-light Meadow pipits called as they passed overhead, reminding me that soon the sky will be punctuated by the flight calls of Fieldfares and Redwings. Smaller birds were still relatively quiet, although from time to time, I could see movement in the lower tiers of the trees. Nearby, an alarm call from a wren, and at one point, soft ticking sounds came from within a scrubby bush, and a small flock of Long-tailed tits appeared, moving through the branches like bobbing musical notes.

I reached the high ground that overlooks the copse as the clouds to the east flared momentarily a deep rose-red. With the sun up, daylight quickly increased and with it bird activity. Blue tits, Great tits and Chaffinches started to call to one another as they worked through the Blackthorn scrub on the edge of the copse. Hidden from view, but very close to me I could hear the slightly mournful call of a Bullfinch. Further away, a Chiffchaff haltingly gave song.

Time to walk back, taking in another part of the copse on my way. The blackberries, mostly over now, have been both abundant and delicious. Blackthorn branches are weighed down with sloes, and the Guelder Rose bushes are covered in berries. I hope this means our birds will do well this winter.

copse report #2

I’m walking along the southern side of the copse that is the focal point of my patch. It’s an hour or so after dawn and the bird song is a tapestry of interwoven sounds, almost overwhelming. Here at the end of April the leaves are starting to fill in the gaps between the branches, so it is getting harder to spot the birds that favour this habitat.

Thick with dew, the grass clings to my boots. From the top of a nearby fence post a Wren gives voice to its larger than life song. Away to my left I can hear the tumbling song of a Chaffinch, and the repeated phrases of a Song Thrush. I come to a stop; I am not sure if it is my imagination or not, but in amongst all the other songs and calls I am sure I caught a snippet of something else. Something scratchy; a sound that doesn’t quite fit with the familiar songs that I can hear. I listen for a minute, but failing to hear it again, I resume walking.

I’ve not gone much further and there it is again , I am certain of it. I stop a second time and wait. This time I get the payoff – there is a slight lull from the other birds, enough for me to clearly pick out the short-phrased song. That of a bird I have not heard here before; the Whitethroat. Up until a few years ago I used to see them in the hedgerows around the lanes near our home, so it’s a delight to see one again in the area.

It is somewhere in the brambles just beyond the copse boundary . I use my binoculars to scan the area from where the sound is coming from but I can’t pick it out, despite their propensity for perching in full view on the tops of vegetation. I could spend more time looking for it, but my attention is drawn away by the burbling call of a Blackcap in the bushes beside me. Or at least, that is what I initially think it is.

Two aspects to warbler’s behaviour – that they don’t stay still for long, and often spend much of their time in the middle of shrubs or undergrowth – along with their often indistinguishable appearance make them difficult to identify. This one is being true to form; I can hear it clearly, and I can see movement, but any brief view I get is partially obscured and too dark to see any colour. Moving to another vantage point I watch again. This time I am rewarded, as the bird moves to the outer branches. What I see is a small brown warbler – brown all over, so definitely not a Blackcap. This then is a Garden Warbler. And for the second time today, a first for my patch, and for the 12 months or so that I have been coming here now, the fifth species of warbler.

Distinguishing between the song of the Blackcap and the Garden Warbler is a noted challenge of birding 1. I certainly lack the expertise, and can only say with confidence that I have heard the song of a Garden Warbler once, as I saw the bird in question clearly enough to identify it. On this occasion I am able to observe and listen to one at close quarters for fifteen minutes or more – perhaps the biggest difference I can hear is that once it gets going it just keeps on going! I don’t know, but I hope that this means I will be that bit better at telling the difference in the future.


A fortnight later I am in the copse again. It’s the middle of May and the difference in the leaf coverage on the trees is so much more noticeable. The undergrowth is now verdant, a mass of grass, nettles and cow parsley. The flowers of the Blackthorn and Wild Cherry have been superseded by those of the Hawthorn and Wayfaring Tree. Any vestige of winter is long gone, and the paths around the copse feel more closed in and secret.

I want to see if there is any sign of either the Whitethroat or Garden Warbler this time. Of the latter – not a thing. Does this mean that it was simply passing through when I saw it? I would like to think that it is here for the summer. Perhaps I will hear it again on another visit. It is quite a bit colder than on my previous visit and the birds are less active, so maybe it is just not giving itself away. However, what I do hear is the Whitethroat, and this time I am able to spot it. It is in the same location as on my last visit, using several different perches from which to sing, and every now and then it gives its display flight.

After a time I realise that I can hear not one but two Whitethroats. A scan in the direction from where I can hear the second reveals one perching on top of an Elderberry bush, not more than fifty metres from the first. Do either of these have a mate? Are they nesting or just holding territories? Regardless, it is good to see the reappearance of Whitethroats – I hope this signals a change in the fortunes for the species in our area.

Usually on my visits to the copse I am taking an overview of the birds I can see or hear, but on these last two visits I’ve found myself drawn into watching just one or two individual birds. As I get to know the copse and its residents better, perhaps this is a natural evolution; delving deeper into the lives of these birds. Walking back home, thinking about the those I have seen, and the ones I haven’t, my mind is filled with more questions than answers. This is the pull of birding – the more you learn about birds and their behaviour, the more you realise how much there is to be learnt.


  1. The BTO have a useful video to help tell the difference here 

a return visit

33DDED54-0DD9-407D-B782-83B850437716This afternoon a Little Owl began to call very loudly from somewhere in or near our garden. Eventually spotted it in the Elderberry bushes at the end of the garden. Was this the same one that visited the garden in the cold spell at the end of February? Couldn’t say for sure, but it’s quite likely.

Thing is, there is an owl box on our neighbour’s outbuilding, just metres from where it was perching. I will have to keep a closer eye on it, see if there any goings on. Could be an excuse to buy a trail cam. Now there’s a thought…